Thursday, June 4, 2020
Strategy Implementation at Dell Computer (Essay Sample) Content: Strategy Implementation at Dell Computer(Name)(Institution Affiliation)Abstract Planning and organization are important aspects of consideration if any business entity has to achieve maximum success and effectiveness. Founded in 1984 by Michael Dell, Dell company has grown today into a global leader in production of personal computers. The organizational structure of Dell Company has proved to be efficient and effective. A comparison to other organizations demonstrates the importance of an organizational structure and shows commonalities as well as differences in structure. This paper explains how Dell Companys changes in organization structure have affected the company and whether this changes have been having positive impacts to the company.Case background In 2001, Dell Company was the worlds largest personal computer vendor, continuing to expand its market share and post profits in an industry stressed by slumping sales and billions of dollars in losses. As Dell h as gone beyond its home market in the United States, it had to adjust its business activities and organizational structure to the different markets in which it operates. In effect, Dell has been continuously changing its organizational structure in these new regions. Since its inception to the 1990s, Dell Company was operating in a decentralized kind of organizational structure. From the 1990s to the mid-2000, Dell Company had changed its organizational structure and was operating on a bureaucratic and autocratic organizational structure while from the year 2000 to present; the company has been operating on hierarchical and structurally bulk organizational structure (Harsley, 2009). Why Dell has moved to different kinds of organizational structures over time? In reality, the world has become a global village and the global economy requires that different business organizations adjust their organizational structure in order to embrace the success that comes with globalized economic s ystems (Fredly Sarah, 2010). Most of the prominent organizations and companies including Dell Company have been exposed to the challenges that arise due to the presence of foreign markets and competition. Indeed, Dell Company and other rival companies have been constantly faced with the need to reshape themselves in order to accommodate the international competition and discover new methods that help them exploit the marketing opportunities in every corner of the world. Failure of some companies to embrace a global viewpoint has made them to collapse and this has been recognized as the main mistakes that managers of such any company can make. In 1984, Dell Company operated alone since the demand for their products was not big. However, as the company grew over time, demand for the produced commodities increased thus necessitating a need to restructure the supply chain and the overall management (Mangan Lalwani, 2008). In order to serve the great demand posed by the customers, Del l Company was required to employ more workers and consequently allocate tons of work to each of the employees. As the industry grew bigger and bigger, Dell who was the head of the company could not work alone or do everything in the company without the help of other people who were supposed to provide managerial skills within the administrative positions. The only option that was left is for Dell to acknowledge the strength of a functional oriented management structure that would help the company realize its goals through managers who would work in different areas of the production and distribution process such as in manufacturing and marketing sectors. Moreover, the market sector for the company was increasingly becoming fragmented and the company was in a position to manufacture and market products within a wide range. Dellas the head of the company therefore had a major obligation of establishing a more developed form of organizational structure that would increase flexibility in the rapidly changing marketing arena. At the same time, Dell would also be required to control his increasing number of workers in order to ensure that they worked in a way that was consistent with the established objectives of the company. With all these requirements being the major points that would guarantee the success of the company, Dell had to revise his organizational structure for the company so as to create a conducive environment that would allow more sub-divisions which were necessary to better the services that were offered to the customer and effectively respond to the needs of the customer. As seen in many organizations, it is better to change the organizational structure of the company especially when the business moves to a different direction to make competitive advantage. With the above points been put into consideration, there was a great need for Dell to constantly change the organizational structure of the company.Has Dell's performance been improved? Answer : Yes, Dells performance has greatly been enhanced particularly from a change in its organizational structure. Firstly, forming the functional structure of the company and giving the power and authority to the manager helped the company to institute and develop a thin managerial and organizational culture that has greatly helped reduce the costs of running the businesses. Dell organizational structure has helped the company to follow the functional structure that has great importance especially in the areas of management, skills improvement, communication, motivation and controlling (McLeese, 2009). The greatest advantage of the constant changes that have been done by Dell Company is that these changes have facilitated transition from just production of goods to a system that is more focused on the needs of the customer. This has also enabled creation of balance between the local demand and the market trends and thus finally creating a strong customer focus. Secondly, another major success that Dell Company has achieved through the constant changes has been through fragmenting the sub-division for particular groups of customers. Fragmentation has allowed Dell Company to better respond to the needs of their customer. Subsequently, this has increased the customer satisfaction in terms of their different needs. Moreover, grouping the sub divisions as per the customer group has helped the employees of the company to obtain more information about the company and therefore be in a position to specialize in their duties to serve the specific customers. Of course, this kind of organization structure has increased the productivity of the company. Besides this, Dell Companys performance has substantially improved from making use of the shared intranet to standardize its activities in all divisions and in fact assimilate its activities to reduce the cost of production. The third advantage of the restructured organizational structure is that it has enabled Dell company in crease customer responsiveness and customizability, the changed organizational structure has greatly simplified the reporting relationships and it has also offered easier interdepartmental communication. As a result, this has led to benefits on the products and the market structure. This has also ensured availability of an opportunity for bundling of the products and finally allowing Dell to have a one face to its large number of customers.How Dell has been trying to increase its performance and how its competitors such as HP and Acer have also been working to improve theirs? The world of technology is highly unpredictable especially with the crisis events that are occurring. The ability to continue to interconnect is important to enhance survival through the unexpected situations. Dell Company has recognized this need and has been actively involved in the process of improving its performance amidst the hard economic conditions surrounding their business activities. The following ar e the measures that the company has been actively embracing in order to improve its performance over the years. The first strategy the company has been adopting is improvement of the interaction between the customers and the employees during the crisis. This has helped the company to gather enough advice on the directions, establish status and tools that have helped through the hard time. Changes in the environment and the industry are the major factors that have directly affected the growth of the company. As competition has expanded, the computer industry has generally been struggling to survive. However, Dell Company has remained profitable and has stood up on the firm financial foundation. This has mainly been indicated by the ability of Dell Company to respond quickly and adjust to the environment. The second way through which the company has tried to improve its performance is through being alert to the accelerating changes in the world of business such as in the developing tr ends and economies. Dell Company has improved its performance by recognizing the changes and acting on them so as to achieve its competitive advantage. Dell Company has been expeditious in its decision-making process and also execution of goal-oriented revolution that is in alignment with its organizational objectives and goals. The third way through which Dell has improved its performance is by quick innovation and resourcefulness that has greatly helped retain its status amongst the top personal computers producers. Dell's plan to integrate stakeholders and customers feedback in the process of innovation and product design has ensured customer loyalty. These measures have enabled reduction of time and costs that would be incurred in the research and development process. This has also provided motivation to the employees. Apart from the above, this measure has also enabled rapid product development which incre...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Men and women we are the same. We may have different body parts different emotions but women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be treated any different. We do live in a free country; shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t we have the freedom to choose what job we want? Women have rights whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s the right to bear arms or fight front row in combat. Thousands of women are fighting for their country whether it is in the Air force, Army, or military. The one thing women canÃ¢â¬â¢t do is fight in the front row of combat. Why? Because men donÃ¢â¬â¢t think we are strong enough. I say women should stand back and fight for their rights. All women should be able to fight in combat because men arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always emotionally stable, to further support womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and they are no different than men. WomenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The argument is that women canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle being on the front line in combat because they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as physically or mentally capable as men. (Ã¢â¬Å"EDITORIAL: Women Have . Right to Fight for FreedomÃ¢â¬ ). In fact 87% of women already fight in military services, just not in the front row. Fighting in the front row in combat should not have to deal with being emotionally unstable. I thought women and men were supposed to be treated equally. Women are no different than men. I mean sure men are way bigger and stronger but IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen women that are also very strong. Women were put in war just to be nurses. Women couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even be a doctor because people said it was a manÃ¢â¬â¢s job. Critics say women possess physical and biological handicaps that will damage the cohesion of combat units. If they were put in combat. Women are still being treated unfairly. Women should be treated equally. Quote Ã¢â¬Å"Since the U.S. military has begun integrating women into combat positions; it hasnt lowered its training standards or made any concessions (Ã¢â¬Å"EDITORIAL: Women Have . Right to Fight for FreedomÃ¢â¬ ). The changes made even to let women fight in the military services happened in the late 1990-1991. The critics said it may take two women to do the same job as one man on the battlefield. Quote Ã¢â¬Å"A woman may lack the strength to carry a wounded soldier out of harms way.Ã¢â¬ (Introduction to Women in the Military :Ã¢â¬ ). Women are not all theShow MoreRelatedBattle Royal And Mai Chai Lee s My Grandmother The War Criminal1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiscrimination through the camp the narrator and her mother were held in. Ralph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Battle RoyalÃ¢â¬ is a short story about a young African American man who delivers a speech at his graduation and he was given the opportunity to give the speech again in front of people from his town. He was asked to participate in the battle royal before delivering his speech and not knowing what the event was he accepted. He will suffer greatly before delivering his speech and what he faces before getting to the speechRead MoreNearly One-Fifth Of The U.S Military Is Female, However1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNearly one-fifth of the U.S military is female, however certain jobs are not eligible for women. Is it believed that women are not considered for front-line combat and Special Forces positions. Opponents argue that women are physically not capable of being effective for troops and would distract men making the military less effective. However women are fully capable of becoming troops the only thing holding them back is the stereotype that they a re not physically capable of handing combat roles.Read MoreReasons to Not Allow Women in the Front Lines1775 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespercent of them make up the front line units (CNN). This is approximately 5,400 women that are enlisted and are fighting on the front lines. This number is very low and should be much higher. This number represents the idea that the military believes women should not be on the front lines. Many people in society believe that what the military is doing is wrong and females should be able to fight on the front lines. There has been an official ban on women fighting on the front lines by the military. RecentlyRead MoreWomen Should Be Allowed For The Military Combat Just Like The Men1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWoman should be allowed to serve in the military combat just like the men. The year 1994 was the year they banned women from being in military combat. Ever since January 2013 they have tried to find ways to lift the ban. In January 2016 they had to deci de whether women should or should not be in combat. Women have performed in combat some have even died in defense of our county. The woman served regardless the problem. It was recommended by the marine corps to open up positions to women regardlessRead MoreThe War Of The World War I1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfight on a battlefield, and had little impact on the lives of civilians not involved in the fighting. However, during World War One, governments controlled the economy, shifting the focus of industry from consumer goods production to the production of goods that would support the war. All available civilians were put to work either directly in the fighting, or in support of war activities on the home front. Civilians played a critical role in World War One through their expression of patriotism andRead MoreShort Story860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDemons bled from the wound in the sky. The ground shuddered under them as they fell to earth. The acrid stench of piss and fear and death hung in the air, fighting with the smoke to choke all who drew breath. With everything heÃ¢â¬â¢d seen Ã¢â¬â at Kinloch Hold, during the Blight, with the Qunari invasion of Kirkwall, the state of Kirkwall in general and MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s descent into madness Ã¢â¬â he had been convinced there was little in the world that could shock him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d been wrong. Now all he could wish wasRead MoreWhy Women Should Fight The Front Line1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhy I Believe Women Should Be On The Front Line I believe women should fight side by side with men. I believe women are equal to men, there s only a physical difference but we are all the same. Women can do everything a man can. If women fight in the front line i think there would be less casualties than there right now. Although women should be fighting in front line in the military many believe they should not. More than 200,000 position will still be remain exclusive to men. women wonRead MoreWomen and the Military1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswomen are becoming an important factor in the U.S. military and now occupy every position expect those on the front lines. With the infiltration of women in the services in 1972, great controversy has arisen and has become a highly argued issue (Donnelly 8). I believe that women should not only be permitted to be employed in the military, but also should be able to fight on the front lines of combat. For centuries women have been under great scrutiny due to their physical ability, thoughtRead MoreWomen s Roles During World War II1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCleary ENG201 Fall 2014 WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles During World War II On September 3rd 1939 World War II started in Europe. During World War II, more than 16 million American men served in the military. While this large portion of the population was overseas fighting for the United States, women had to do many of the jobs in America normally held by men. Women were considered vital assets to the war effort, and the American government made sure to use their skills and labor in many different areas to win theRead MoreWomen in Combat1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI m an American soldier too Can a woman handle fighting in combat? Should women be able to come face to face with the enemy? Will women be able to control their emotions and take the horror that war inflicts? Should women be grateful that they are not included in such a terrible thing as combat, or is it wrong to exclude them just because they are women? I say if a woman chooses this kind of challenge, then she is more than capable. During the daring rescue of prisoner of war Jessica Lynch
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Macro and Micro of Sweden and United States What is Macroeconomics? Macroeconomics is the part of economics study that looks at the operation of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy as a whole (30). Macroeconomics main focus is the production and consumption in an economy. Economists that specialize in macro investigate the effects of general taxes such as income and sales taxes output and prices. They also study the causes of economic upswings and downturn and the effects of monetary and fiscal point policy on economic wealth. Macroeconomists also determine how interests are determined and why so economies grow faster than others. (Economics) What is Microeconomics? Microeconomics is part of economics study that looks at the behavior of people and organizations in particular markets (30). Microeconomics concern is consumer decision-making and utility maximization. They also look into firm production and profit maximization and individualÃ¢â¬â¢s equilibrium. Study the effects of government regulations on individual markets and externalities along with other market side effects. (Economics) The relationship between Macroeconomics and Microeconomics is the production and consumption levels as the result of choice made by households and firms impact the country as a whole. For example, how much we spend as individuals on products ultimately impacts how much we import in order to spend to keep the economy regulating. If we areShow MoreRelatedImproving Electronic Patient Health Record System1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United States is known to be one of the worst countries in the world in the aspect of health care delivery. Due to its fragmented structure, it is a system that does not Ã¢â¬Å"function as a rational and integrated network of components (that would be) designed to work together coherentlyÃ¢â¬ (Shi and Song, 2015, p. 4). One of the major consequences of this fragmentation is high expenditure in the delivery of health care. Why is our health care system so expensive? One of the answers lay in administrativeRead MoreHow Marketing Affec ts My Choice938 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto the mall. This is a direct way that marketing affected my choice to purchase items from DillardÃ¢â¬â¢s and other outlets from Governor Square mall. 3) Macro views of marketing are identifying and satisfying a good and service for the consumers on a broad scale. This ensures that the products reaches the consumer at the right time and location. For micro views this is on a smaller scale and are mostly used by individual organizations. 5) A recent purchase would be containers from The Container StoreRead MoreBusiness Analysis : Hennes Mauritz2992 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Hennes Mauritz commonly known as HM, was in 1947 a recently inaugurated ladies store in VÃ ¤sterÃ ¥s, Sweden. It was originally named Hennes which is Swedish for her s. Hennes saw its name change to Hennes Mauritz in 1968 when the founder Erling Persson captured the premises and stock of a Stockholm hunting equipment store called Mauritz Widforss. The first store that opened outside of Scandinavia was in London, UK in 1976. HM exists in 53 nations and starting 2013, employed around 116Read MoreShould Paternity Leave Be A Mandatory Employee Benefit?1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIt Takes Two A brand-new family has just brought home a screaming and crying baby, the best part is that they both have a month off work to love, care, and nurture this newborn into the world while getting paid. Sweden was the first country to introduce paid paternity leave as a mandatory employee benefit, followed closely by the other Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Iceland, and Norway. Since its introduction, paid paternity leave continues to make gains, making the Nordics the eye of focusRead MoreAnalysis of Boffis international strategy Essay5901 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesset up allowed this. Table of contents I) Introduction to BoffiÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Page 1 II) BoffiÃ¢â¬â¢s strategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Page 2 III) Micro environmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Page 3 1) PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces (Italy, France, Japan)Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Page 3,4 2) PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s value chainÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Page 4,5 3) SWOT, TWOXÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Page 5-8 IV) Macro environmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Page 8 1) Pestel ItalyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Page 8 2) Pestel FranceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Page 9 3) Pestel JapanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreThe Language Conflict of Norway1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswill mainly focus on Status Planning, as we are interested in the social aspect of implementing and using Nynorsk and BokmÃ ¥l. Micromacro? Language purification Language revival Lexical modernisation Language Planning In trying to explain the processes of language planning there are several models. We are here focusing on the model made by Einar Haugen. He states in his model that there are four parts of language planning. The four parts are selection, implementation, codification and elaborationRead MoreMicro Macro of Volvo, Swot Analysis of Volvo, Crm of Volvo4774 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesHISTORY Volvo Car Corporation is a SwedishÃ automobile manufacturer, owned by theÃ ChineseÃ Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Volvo Car Corporation was founded in 1927, inÃ Gothenburg,Ã Sweden.Ã Volvo was originally formed as a subsidiary company to theÃ ball bearingÃ makers SKP. When Volvo AB was introduced on the Swedish stock exchange in 1935, SKF sold most of the shares in the company. Volvo Cars was owned byÃ AB VolvoÃ until 1999, when it was acquired by theÃ Ford Motor CompanyÃ as part of itsÃ Premier AutomotiveRead MoreChapter 2 Worldwide Accounting Diversity18181 Words Ã |Ã 73 Pagesreporting. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Categorize accounting differences internationally and provide examples of each type of difference. INTRODUCTION Considerable differences exist across countries in the accounting treatment of many items. For example, companies in the United States are not allowed to report property, plant, and equipment at amounts greater than historical cost. In contrast, companies in the European Union are allowed to report their assets on the balance sheet at market values. Research and development costsRead MoreThe Syrian Refugee Crisis Essay2252 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages This is the root cause of many of the violent wars and crises that have occurred over thousands of years. In more recent times critical conflicts that have occurred throughout the world have had adverse effects globally. It was estimated, by the United Nations, that at the end of 2013 over 51 million people globally, more than half of which included women and children, were displaced due to persecution, warfare, and violence (Salopek 2015). The Syrian civil war has been a large contributor for thisRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy Rates And The Uni ted States3104 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesshown that U.S. teenagers have (a) high rates of sexual intercourse at a younger age, (b) high rates of sex without contraceptives, (c) high rates of pregnancy, (d) and high number of multiple sex partners in comparison to European countries like Sweden, France, Netherland (Bell, 2009). One of the main reasons for high rates of teenage pregnancy in the U.S. is the continuation of ineffective abstinence based education (Bell, 2009) and not allowing teenagers to make abortion related decisions. In
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theCorporate Governance for Incentive andCompensation. Answer: A corporation is a separate legal entity distinct from the shareholder. The shareholders choose the board who act on their behalf. The following study examines the impact of corporate governance codes of practice is general slowdown decision making at company board level. This gradually slow down the decision making at the company level and creates difficulty in introducing innovation and creativity. Some of the elements of good governance are beneficial for the company in order to keep board vigilance, incentive and compensation. Overall it is clear from the above statement that corporate governance at times is painful. The recent changes in the managerial discretion have resulted in the wake of financial downturn. This in result has restricted an appropriate approach to manage the upcoming crises. This creates a pressure at the time of crises to eventually meet the desired outcome. In short, at times when there is a complete panic state, board can give relaxation to the top manager to fully respond as per their understanding to an issue Contrary to the conventional approach on good governance (McCahery et al 2016). The officers and board of directors have a fiduciary duty to act in the best interest of the corporation. The board is held liable in case of breach of duties and not meeting the standard requirements. Corporate governance has become a problem to manage a large sized business organization the separation of ownership and management has created a gap in managing organizational goal. This causes conflict in between the organization while maximizing shareholder value and individual interest. There can be an illegal insider trading because the board members and directors have an access to confidential information that might affect the value of the share (Obradovich and Gill, 2013). Corporate governance and ownership affect innovation activity more strongly when innovation. Corporate governance slow down the decision making and stifle organization on a survey conducted by KPMG and Lindstock, companies do have a unanimous view on the expenditure made on the Corporate Governance. They are not even adding much value to the shareholder. There is a continuous arguments related to the risk associated with the financial performance of the company. There is a risk in relation to monitoring an improving the corporate governance. A procedural approach to the corporate governance is wrong. However there are certain vague approaches to the corporate governance that can slowdown the management and decision making process. There are certain level if destruction because people undertake project they should not undertake (Edmans, 2014). This directly affects the NPV of the project hence depreciating the value. The main motive of a corporation is to maximize profits for the stoc kholders only, disregarding the 'stakes'. A corporation is an artificial entity not having social responsibilities and obligations to stakeholders can cause an issue in delegating responsibility. The arguments related to implication of corporate governance whilst in support of the narrow view of corporate governance (Carnes, 2013). This is proven fact that firms with an accountable and more transparent manner draw investor self-confidence to leverage debt, and to determine customer centric and socially responsibility. This has become even more profitable due to an effective organizational measure (Tricker and Tricker, 2015). This will allow in developing an effective justification for the broader view of corporate governance. This is necessary for managing the financial reporting system. This unnecessary delay in meeting the requisite related to the corporate governance is proving out to be an unnecessary burden in delivering results. Moreover this is more backward and historical in nature (Bebchuk, Cohen and Ferrell, 2008). The concept ever grew adding on sustainability and environmental management reports. The business engages the community and the natural environment in order to promote consistent growth. While Building on the triple bottom-line platform, Financial Reporting is moving towards the future hence restricting the modern concept. An integrated report regarding the corporate governance communication is regarding the organizations strategy, governance, performance and prospects, so the external environment, lead to creation of value (Osabiniyi, 2017). Meanwhile, the evolution of financial reporting is important for managing the corporate governance in order to create value for the longer term. This encompasses customer value, corporate social responsibility and sustainability issues to be managed for a longer-time period. An organization focusing over the concept of corporate governance will have a shorter life span. Innovation and creativity is restricted in managing the organization following corporate governance (Williams, 2016). The concept of corporate governance in Australia widens further than compliance with regulatory necessities and involves a mix of authoritarian and voluntary elements. For evaluating it, the Australian governance involves the three key elements: Hard law, which include a regular fulfillment of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (Corporations Act), Soft law, These are the rules framed by the Australian Securities Exchange Limited (ASX) governing the contract under law The Non-binding guidelines include the third edition1 of the ASX Corporate Governance Councils Principles and Recommendations ((Williams, 2016). The continuous evolution of corporate governance is important for framing the policies of a corporation. The wider approach to governance is creating opportunities in meeting the designated roles and appropriate authority. This helps in managing the information in an effective way. For making a purposeful intervention, there is a necessity to allow development in order to manage the organizational goal. They are not even adding much value to the shareholder. There is a continuous arguments related to the risk associated with the financial performance of the company. Hence in order to motivate innovation and development, it is necessary to manage the process of consistent growth. It is seldom seen that corporate governance is affecting the growth process in an organization. While implementing an innovative exercise, Corporate Governance thereby hinders the growth which affects the organizational goal. However, to reduce the cases of non-compliance of legal issues, Corporate Governance sets an effective parameter. Due to this reason it is evident for an organization for ignoring its implications on long run. References Bebchuk, L., Cohen, A. and Ferrell, A., 2008. What matters in corporate governance?The Review of financial studies,22(2), pp.783-827. Carnes,D.2013. The Disadvantages of Corporate Governance. Online. Available at: https://info.legalzoom.com/disadvantages-corporate-governance-20070.html Accessed on: 13 October 2017 Edmans, A., 2014. Blockholders and corporate governance.Annu. Rev. Financ. Econ.,6(1), pp.23-50. McCahery, J.A., Sautner, Z. and Starks, L.T., 2016. Behind the scenes: The corporate governance preferences of institutional investors.The Journal of Finance,71(6), pp.2905-2932. Obradovich, J. and Gill, A., 2013. The impact of corporate governance and financial leverage on the value of American firms. Osabiniyi,O.2017. The Pros and Cons of Corporate Governance. Online. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pros-cons-corporate-governance-oscar-osabinyi-fcca Accessed on: 13 October 2017 Tricker, R.B. and Tricker, R.I., 2015.Corporate governance: Principles, policies, and practices. Oxford University Press, USA. Williams, I.2016. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN AUSTRALIA: A SNAPSHOT. Online. Available at: https://www.herbertsmithfreehills.com/latest-thinking/corporate-governance-in-australia-a-snapshot Accessed on: 13 October 2017
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Information System Alsmeer Flower Auction Essay Information Systems Aalsmeer Flower Auction Management Consultancy Report Introduction This assessment work will consider how the use of modern information systems and technology might ensure the continued success of the Aalsmeer Flower Auction. The report will look at the type of business, information requirements, information strategy which can help Alsmeer Flower Auction to cope with changing environment. Also will take into consideration the impact and effectiveness of a new system for the organisation, management and employees. Business Analysis Aalsmeer Flower Auction (Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer) is a flower auction, located in Aalsmeer, the Netherlands. The Netherlands is the heart of the international floriculture sector. It has an intricate and high-quality network of companies, ranging from breeders and growers to sales experts and export firms, representing every aspect of the business. The Netherlands is the place where supply and demand come together. From Europe and beyond (source: About FloraHolland http://www. flora. nl/en/AboutFloraHolland/Pages/default. aspx). On January 1, 2008 the Aalsmeer Flower Auction merged with their biggest competitor FloraHolland. FloraHolland flower auction plays a key role in the Netherlands, land of Floriculture where its position as marketplace fulfils the role of matchmaker, intermediary and knowledge center. Figure 1. FloraHolland key facts Number of centers6 (Aalsmeer, Naaldwijk, Rijnsburg, Bleiswijk, Venlo and Eelde). Number of clocks40 Number of members5,000 Number of supplyers9,000 Number of customers3,500 Number of employees4,400 Most important import countriesKenya, Israel, Ethiopia, Ecuador and Germany Most important export countriesGermany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Belgium source:http://www. flora. nl/en/AboutFloraHolland/Cooperative/Pages/Factsandfigures. aspx) One of the most important part of FloraHolland Company is Aalsmeer Flower Auction which offers globally-producing growers and globally active wholesalers and exporters a total concept: a central marketplace for the buying and selling of floricultural products with a range of marketing channels, facilities for growers and buyers a nd logistics. This makes the Aalsmeer Flower Auction a prominent link in the international chain of flower and plant sales. We will write a custom essay sample on Information System Alsmeer Flower Auction specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Information System Alsmeer Flower Auction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Information System Alsmeer Flower Auction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Structure of Aalsmeer Flower Auction cleary showing Figure 2. The AFA uses two main channels to play its role as a mediator among growers and buyers: Ã¢â¬ ¢ auction: by using the auction clock, most of the supply from growers is divided into smaller units to be sold by exporters and wholesalers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ direct mediation: teams of mediators combine specific supply and demand to generate transactions for day trade and futures. In this process, they often follow the auction prices (sources: Bringing e-Business to the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Largest Flower Auction: The Case of AalsmeerÃ¢â¬â¢ 2005 www. dea-group. com). As a part of FloraHolland they transform and collect several information (see figure1) about their customers, suppliers, transport, mambers, employees, products (flowers, plants), transactions, etc. In 21st century in this type of business to be competitive advantage in the industry key role play new technology application named electronic business. It may be defined as the appli cation of information and communication technologies in support of all the activities of business. E-business involves business processes spanning the entire value chain: electronic purchasing and supply chain management, processing orders electronically, handling customer service, and cooperating with business partners. Special technical standards for e-business facilitate the exchange of data between companies. E-business is any process that a business organization conducts over an information technology (IT) or computer-mediated network, such as the Internet. E-business software solutions allow the integration of intra and inter firm business processes. E-business can be conducted using the Web, the Internet, intranets, extranets, or some combination of these (source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Electronic_business). Currently AFA (as a part of FloraHolland) concentrated on computer system innovation named E-services. They using internet and electronic channels to support its business process and to connect buyers and suppliers what helped AFA to redefine the value chain, to reduce transaction costs, to strengthen the link with wholesalers and retailers and to increase market share. Currently AFA offer for their customers on line access to: Account on-line Clients and auction can settle customerÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts through daily and weekly statements. The Internet application Account Online makes these invoices available electronically. If customer have auctioned products or used mediation, then they may download the daily statement after 8 p. m. The weekly settlement is available beginning Friday at around 10 p. m. Account Online is a free service. Clockviewer Easy-access and cost-effective way to gain insight into what is happening on the clock. With a subscription to Ã¢â¬Å"ClockviewerÃ¢â¬ customers may follow online exactly what is happening at the same minute on the clock in the stands in Aalsmeer. Clock Supply Online provides information on clock supply every auction day beginning at 3:15 pm. The information includes data on suppliers, products and amounts. Information is updated every five minutes until the Ã¢â¬Å"closing bellÃ¢â¬ . The system gives an advance look at the daily clock supply available. It supports the buyer in his purchasing and administrative procedures. EAB Besides the paper delivery form (PAB) the floriculture industry also uses a digital version: the e-delivery form (EAB). Each supplier may use the EAB to provide direct supply information to all floricultural auctions in the Netherlands. EABel If customers are unable to utilize the e-delivery form (EAB), you may transmit supply information by phone using EABel. EABel is accessible seven days a week between 8 a. m. and 10 p. m. Electronic direct batch accountability The VEPT (temporary electronic batch feedback system) contains clock transactions from the current auction day. The major advantage of this service is that you can receive transaction information already during the auction process. Electronic batch accountability Electronic batch accountability (EPV) contains clock transactions on the current auction day from the mediation organization. This information is sent to client Ã¢â¬Å"after auctioningÃ¢â¬ . In addition, Electronic Batch Accountability includes clock transactions from the current auction day. The major advantage of this service is that the transaction information is sent to customer already during the auction process. Floranet is to compare sales figures from the past three years, products prices checker, account history and transaction services. FlorEcom order system FlorEcom-notices (order confirmations and order responses for example) are part of the FlorEcom-order system. FlorEcom-notices are designed according to a certain structure (electronic data interchange (EDI). Image Centre Electronic photo supply. The photos are used for Remote Buying, image auctioning and projection auctioning. Internet weekly and daily statementThis daily statement, which has the exact same content as the standard paper daily statement, is sent each afternoon by internet to your (electronic) inbox. Kiss it Current information on logistical processes. MyFloraHolland This Internet portal allows both buyers and suppliers online access to a wealth of information (special code needed to access). TeleVBA With TeleVBA customers may consult information and statistics concerning products they have supplied. Thay may access packaging data and statistical figures on all products traded through the auction. Customers may also call up their personal Buyer Top 25. All this information is only available for them to consult and print out. Saving and editing the information (as with electronic daily statements) is not possible. Tracking and Tracing If supplier have the products for sell through their delivered using their logistical services, they may use the Tracking Tracing option to see exactly which logistical phase customers products are in at the moment. (Source: http://www. lora. nl/en/Supplying/Eservices/Pages/default. aspx ). Information requirements and strategy Board of Aalsmeer Flower Auction needs still a lots of information to be competitive in the industry and to achieve their business objectives (entering a new market, maximize sales, minimize costs, market dominance, new technologies). To be competitive and the best in the market they should know their: Services Quality, Infor mation Quality, System Quality, User Satisfaction, Information Use, Individual Impact, Organizational Impact. That information can give them knowledge about: Main competitors and their solutions, -How and where they can find new and original products? , -How sell products fresh as possible? -New technologies (better conectivity with suppliers and customers). -WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s prices in Industry, -How to keep information and data safety? -How minimize costs, etc. The best information system strategy for AFA is a continue Ã¢â¬ËBusiness InteligenceÃ¢â¬â¢- Ã¢â¬ËBusiness InteligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing hard business data, such as sales revenue by products or departments or associated costs and incomes. Business Inteligence uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence, is done by gathering, analyzing and disseminating information with or without support from technology and applications, and focuses on all-source information and data (unstructured or structured), mostly external to, but also internal to a company, to support decision making. As a main point of their startegy (Ã¢â¬Ëbusiness inteligence and e-servicesÃ¢â¬â¢) Aalsmeer Flower Auction needs to: 1. Extend their IT department to better identify and develop their information system and be more competitive with a changing enviroment. 2. Merge Mediation and Auctioning and departments in one. Between the auctioning and mediation departments, there is a cultural difference. Employees of both departments see each other as competitors. In the past, the emphasis was clearly on auctioning, while mediation was mainly a by-product. Now, business is gradually moving to mediation, but the mediation process is following the price setting at the auction. As a result, both channels are strongly interrelated. Just the cooperation of the two channels gains advantage for growers and buyers. They can choose which percentage of selling or buying they want to do via each channel and therefore they are almostalways assured of selling or buying what they want. 3. Concentrate and extend E business strategy. E-services (Online auction) is a parts of a large segment of internet software engineering e-commerce software solution development. Online marketplace, if powered by quality auction software, is an effective means of connecting buyers and sellers online while optimizing trade processes such as negotiation, payment and shipment. This services can give AFA easier entrance to new market and new customers. Extended E-services and IT department can give a possibility to offer better and quicker services (flower can be fresher and faster delivered to buyer), more varieties, cut cost, etc. For the Aalsmeer Flower Auction best solution to keep and transffer important information and data (finance, sales, customers, employees, suppliers, logistic, etc. ) is connected and integrated computer system with all their departments. This strategy can help Aalsmeer Flower Auction extend customer and supplier base, compare effectivnes of other uctions and their problems. Also it can be more attractive and easy for employees and for existing and potential clients. Easy connection and communication between staff, suppliers and customers, knowledge about competitors and other parts of Company (FloraHolland) is a key to success. Methodology needed to identify and develop a new information system An Information System consists of four parts which include: procedures, software, hardware, and information or data, which are essentially the same. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. It is very important to know how data collection is important to theoretical development, and how different traditional research methodologies used to collect data have strengths and weaknesses that can cause some research to be dilemmatic when investigating certain topics. The wide availability of Internet technology give possibility for new five approaches include two new data collection techniques ( data-collecting agents and Web log files) and three new research approaches that extend existing methodologies (online experiments, online judgment tasks, and online surveys) (source: Kauffman, Robert J. (Editor); Tallon, Paul P. (Editor). Economics, Information Systems, and Electronic Commerce : Empirical Research). Information System effectivenes in Company is dependent to Services Quality, Information Quality, System Quality, User Satisfaction, Information Use, Individual Impact, Organizational Impact. To check and messures all this facts they can use analysis (like SWOT, PEST, ets) or one of the software development methodolgy and their models. SWOT and PEST analysis is a valuable step in assessing your companys and competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It offers powerful insight into the critical issues affecting a business. Softwere Development Methodology refers to the framework that is used to structure, plan, and control the process of developing an information system. A wide variety of such frameworks have evolved over the years, each with its own recognized strengths and weaknesses. One system development methodology is not necessarily suitable for use by all projects. Each of the available methodologies is best suited to specific kinds of projects, based on various technical, organizational, project and team considerations (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Software_development_methodology). The three basic patterns in software development methodologies. Figure 3. (sources: Software development methodologies http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Software_development_methodology). For AFA one of best methodology can be V-model. They all ready started business inteligence strategy so they have a lots important information to choose more complexed methodology than Watrfall, Prototyping or Spiral. The V-model is a software development process which can be presumed to be the extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a linear way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase, to form the typical V shape. The V-Model demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of testing. The V-model deploys a well-structured method in which each phase can be implemented by the detailed documentation of the previous phase. Testing activities like test designing start at the beginning of the project well before coding and therefore potentially saves a huge amount of the project time. Figure 4. V-model The V-model consists of a number of phases. The Verification Phases are on the Left hand side of the V, the Coding Phase is at the bottom of the V and the Validation Phases are on the Right hand side of the V. V-model includes two phases: Verification Phases:Validation Phases: Requirements analysis In the Requirements analysis phase, the requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s). Unit Testing In the V-model of software development, unit testing implies the first stage of dynamic testing process. It involves analysis of the written code with the intention of eliminating errors. It also verifies that the codes are efficient and adheres to the adopted coding standards. Testing is usually white box. It is done using the Unit test design prepared during the module design phase. This may be carried out by software developers. System Design Systems design is the phase where system engineers analyze and understand the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. The software specification document contains the general system organization, menu structures, data structures etc. Integration Testing In integration testing the separate modules will be tested together to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components. Testing is usually black box as the code is not directly checked for errors. Architecture Design The phase of the design of computer architecture and software architecture can also be referred to as high-level design. System Testing System testing will compare the system specifications against the actual system. After the integration test is completed, the next test level is the system test. System testing checks if the integrated product meets the specified requirements. Module Design The module design phase can also be referred to as low-level design. The designed system is broken up into smaller units or modules and each of them is explained so that the programmer can start coding directly. User Acceptance Testing Acceptance testing is the phase of testing used to determine whether a system satisfies the requirements specified in the requirements analysis phase. (sources: Software development methodologies www. wikipedia. org/wiki/sytems_development). Also popular and effective softwere development methodology can be for AFA Rapid Application Development (RAD). RAD that involves techniques like iterative development and software prototyping. In Rapid Application Development, structured techniques and prototyping are especially used to define users requirements and to design the final system. The development process starts with the development of preliminary data models and business process models using structured techniques. In the next stage, requirements are verified using prototyping, eventually to refine the data and process models. These stages are repeated iteratively; further development results in a combined business requirements and technical design statement to be used for constructing new systems (source: http://en. ikipedia. org/wiki/Rapid_application_development). The impact and effectiveness of a new system for the organisation, management and employees. The New Information System will have important impact for AFAÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËknowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢ about Company, their strengths and weaknesses. New system can: -transform unstructured processes into routinized transactions, -transfer information with rapidity and ease across large distances, making processes independent of geography, -replace or reduce human labour in a process, -bring complex analytical methods to bear on a process, bring vast amounts of detailed information into process, -enable changes in the sequence of task in a process, often allowing multiple tasks to be worked on simultaneoulsly, -allows the capture and dissemination of knowledge and expertise to improve the process, -allows the detailed tracking of task status, inputs and outputs, -can be used to connect two parties whitin process that would otherwise communicate through intermediary (internal or external). New developments in Information System and Technology have led to an increasingly mobile workforce. AFA are no longer tied to their desk in order to stay in the information loop. They customers can buying or selling wherever they are. Ultra-mobile PCs permit to access e-mail and other data products at a wide range of locations. A wide range of new technologies can give businesses access to faster communication, increase efficiencies, and the ability to work away from the office, get new customer from all world, better control and manegement, etc (source: Ã¢â¬ËWhat is the impact of new technology in the workplace? Ã¢â¬â¢ www. helium. com ). New information technology can open a door of opportunities for AFA and their mployees willing to explore non-traditional work arrangements. This technology also allows a new kind of team to emerge. Virtual teams can be formed, bringing together the best people regardless of location and time. E-mail, teleconferencing, video conferencing, and new emerging technologies are enabling people around the world to communicate and collaborate rapidly and efficiently. References Books 1. Kauffman, Robert J. (Editor); Tallon, Paul P. (Editor). Economics, Information Systems, and Electronic Commerce : Empirical Research. Websites 1. Aalsmeer Flower Auction www. wikipedia. org/wiki/Aalsmeer_Flower_Auction 2. Information systems discipline www. wikipedia. org/wiki/information_systems_discilpline 3. FloraHolland E-servives http://www. flora. nl/en/Supplying/Eservices/Pages/default. aspx 4. Methodologies www. ncycles. com/e_whi_methodologies. html 5. Software development methodologies http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Software_development_methodology 6. Systems development www. wikipedia. org/wiki/sytems_development 7. IS Effectiveness for business www. business. clemson. edu/ISE/html/is_effectivenes. tml 8. RAD development http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rapid_application_development 9. About FloraHolland http://www. flora. nl/en/AboutFloraHolland/Pages/default. aspx 10. Facts and Figures http://www. flora. nl/en/AboutFloraHolland/Cooperative/Pages/Factsandfigures. aspx 11. Electronic Business http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Electronic_business Articles 1. Ã¢â¬ËWhat is the impact of new technology in the workplace? Ã¢â¬â¢ www. helium. com 2. Ã¢â¬ËBringing e-Business to the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Largest Flower Auction: The Case of AalsmeerÃ¢â¬â¢ 2005 www. idea-group. com
Sunday, March 15, 2020
The Sinking of the Lusitania and America's Entry into World War I On May 7, 1915, the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania was in route from New York City to Liverpool, England when it was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat. Over 1100 civilians died as a result of this attack, including more than 120 American citizens. This defining moment would later prove to be the impetus which eventually convinced United States public opinion to change from itsÃ¢â¬â¢ earlier position of neutrality with respect to being a participant in World War I.Ã On April 6, 1917,Ã President Woodrow Wilson appeared before the U.S. Congress calling for a declaration of war against Germany.Ã American Neutrality at the Start of World War I World War I had officially started on August 1, 1914 when Germany declared war against Russia.Ã Then on August 3rd and 4th, 1914, Germany declared war against France and Belgium respectively, which resulted in Great Britain declaring war against Germany. Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia on August 6th following GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s lead.Ã Following this domino effect that started World War I, PresidentÃ Woodrow WilsonÃ announced that the United States would remain neutral. This was consistent with the public opinion of the majority of the American people. Ã At onset of the war, Britain and United States were very close trading partners so it was not unexpected that tensions would arise between the United States and Germany once the Germans started to conduct a blockade of the British Isles. In addition, a number of American ships that were bound for Great Britain had been either damaged or sunk by German mines. Then in February 1915, Germany broadcast that they would be conducting unrestricted submarine patrols and combat in the waters which surround Britain. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and the Lusitania The Lusitania had been built to be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest ocean liner and shortly after her maiden voyage in September 1907, the Lusitania made the fastest crossing of the Atlantic Ocean at that time earning her the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"Greyhound of the SeaÃ¢â¬ . She was able to cruise at an average speed of 25 knots or approximately 29 mph, which is about the same speed as modern cruise ships. The LusitaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s construction had been secretly financed by the British Admiralty, and she was built to their specifications. In exchange for the government subsidy, it was understood that if England went to war then the Lusitania would be committed to serving the Admiralty. In 1913, war was looming on the horizon and the Lusitania was put in dry dock in order to be properly fitted for military service. This included installing gun mounts on her decks Ã¢â¬â which were hidden under the teak deck so that guns could easily be added when needed. At the end of April 1915, on the same page were two announcements in New York newspapers. First, there was an advertisement of the impending voyage of the Lusitania scheduled to depart from New York City on May 1st for itsÃ¢â¬â¢ trip back across the Atlantic to Liverpool. In addition, there were warnings that had been issued by the German Embassy in Washington, D.C. that civilians who traveled in war zones on any British or Allied ship was done at their own risk. The German warnings of submarine attacks did have a negative impact on the passenger list of the Lusitania as when the ship set sail on May 1, 1915 as it was far below itsÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity of a combined 3,000 passengers and crew on board. The British Admiralty had warned the Lusitania to either avoid the Irish coast or take some very simple evasive actions, such as zigzagging to make it more difficult for German U-boats to determine the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s course of travel.Ã Unfortunately the LusitaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Captain, William Thomas Turner, failed to give proper deference to the AdmiraltyÃ¢â¬â¢s warning. On May 7, the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania was en route from New York City to Liverpool, England when it was torpedoed on its starboard side and sunk by a German U-boat off the coast of Ireland. It only took about 20 minutes for the ship to sink. The Lusitania was carrying approximately 1,960 passengers and crew, of which there were 1,198 casualties. In addition, this passenger list included 159 U.S. citizens and there were 124 Americans included in the death toll. Ã After the Allies and the United States complained, Germany argued that the attack was justified because the LusitaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s manifest listed various items of munitions that were bound for the British military. The British claimed that none of the munitions on board were Ã¢â¬Å"liveÃ¢â¬ , so therefore the attack on the ship was not legitimate under the rules of war at that time. Germany argued otherwise. In 2008, a dive team explored the wreck of the Lusitania in 300 feet of water and found approximately four million rounds of Remington .303 bullets that had been made in the United States in the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s hold. Although Germany eventually gave in to protests made by the United States government regarding the submarine attack on the Lusitania and promised to end this type of warfare, six months later another ocean liner was sunk. In November 2015, a U-boat sunk an Italian liner without any warning whatsoever.Ã More than 270 people perished in this attack, including more than 25 Americans causing public opinion to begin to turn in favor of joining the war against Germany. Americas Entry into World War I On January 31, 1917, Germany declared that it was placing an end to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-imposed moratorium on unrestricted warfare in waters that were within the war-zone. The United States government broke diplomatic relations with Germany three days later and almost immediately a German U-boat sunk the Housatonic which was an American cargo ship. On February 22, 1917, Congress enacted an arms appropriations bill that was designed to prepare the United States for war against Germany. Then, in March, four more U.S. merchant ships were sunk by Germany which prompted President Wilson to appear before Congress on April 2nd requesting a declaration of war against Germany. The Senate voted to declare war against Germany on April 4th and on April 6, 1917 the House of Representatives endorsed the SenateÃ¢â¬â¢s declaration causing the United States to enter World War I.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Genre Switching - Essay Example In this project, chapter 12 of the book: A visit from the goon squad, chapter 12 was deemed preferable as it can relate to the Facebook genre that we found it more related compared to other genres that are available. The 12th chapter of this material is a caption of the thoughts and life of young girl; Alison Blake. Alison has a family consisting of her parents and her brother who is a year older. The thoughts of Alison and the various activities she undertakes have been reflected on powerpoint slides, these slides have been illustrated in a way that it allows the reader to actualize and put to perspective what the young girl goes through as she interact with her family. These PowerPoint presentations can be transferred to a Facebook profile whereby they fit as they are more or less the same thing from AlisonÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation. A Facebook account profile ranges from a status update file where the users can update their friends and family of the current things that they are undertaking in their lives. From this provision with the Facebook accounts, one is able to let their friend know what they are doing and at what time.The Facebook page then has a provision whereby there are spaces allocated to allow friends to respond to the status updates. They can respond to the specific update their friend has illustrated on their Ã¢â¬ËwallsÃ¢â¬â¢; the page from where the details of a person appears along with the updated status of that person.There are other aspects of a Facebook profile such as the Ã¢â¬ËlikeÃ¢â¬â¢ button option whereby people can choose to click where it indicatively show that the person who has read the profile like it and lets the profile owner know it. The Facebook status has also dialog boxes where people can share their thought. like using short messages. AlisonÃ¢â¬â¢s powerpoint slide s transferred to Facebook profile The tense used Powerpoint: The tense that Alison Blake uses in her slides is in present continuous, throughout the profile; she updates her life by referring the immediate things that are taking place. Ã¢â¬ËDad is workingÃ¢â¬â¢; she states what activities her dad is currently undertaking. This means, she records these activities as they are happening. There is the use of passive voice in some parts of her slides, these signifies that the conversation is taking place at the immediate time. Facebook: The tense that Alison uses can qualify for the usage in a Facebook profile, on Facebook, AlisonÃ¢â¬â¢s updates on might have sufficed on the status update where, she can allow the friend knows what is going on around her at the immediate time. The same update from the powerpoint slide might can fit in a status update letting her friends and family know that currently her dad is working on something. The profile on the Facebook status then has simila rity to the PowerPoint slide as it allows one to update whatever the person is undertaking in her life, this is facilitated by the use of tense whereby the update involves the ongoing activity. Relationship PowerPoint slides In the slides there are indications of the